|There are several
types of tooth implants. The most commonly accepted and successful is
the titanium implant.
Process is based on the discovery by Swedish scientist Per-Ingvar
Branemark (Brånemark) of a structural and functional connection between
the jaw bone and the dental implant (osteointegration).
There are over 100
companies available on the U.S. market: Nobel Biocare, Straumann, 3i, Zimmer,
BioHorizons, Astra Tech, Ankylos, Implant Direct, Lifecore, and Bio-Lok
and many others.
A typical implant consists of a titanium screw, with a
roughened surface. At edentulous (without teeth) upper or lower jaw
sites, the dental implant is screwed into the surrounding bone.
Once in the bone, a cover implant screw is placed and
the operation site is allowed to heal for a few months for integration
After some months the implant is uncovered and a healing abutment
(temporary crown) is placed onto the implant. This encourages the gum to
grow in the right shape.
(auto transplantation), a bone graft procedure (a block graft) and sinus
lifting (sinus augmentation) are the common surgical practices at the
present time. Jaw bones have to be strong enough to hold and support the
The placement of a
dental implant into a recent
tooth extraction site could also
preserve the bone and reduce treatment times.
At the present time
5 year success rate of implants is between 75-95% and related to:
- Quality and quantity of the
jaw bones at the implant place
- The patient's oral hygiene
- Who smoke experience
significantly poorer accomplishment rates
A dental implant is
considered to be a failure if it is lost, mobile or shows the bone loss
around. It is usually related to break down of the osseointegration
(connection to the jaw bone).
Risk of failure is
increased in smokers. The implants are commonly placed only after a
patient has stopped smoking as the treatment is very expensive.
An implant also may
not succeed because of poor positioning at the time of surgery, or may