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Oral Pathology       

Oral pathology or Oral Medicine, also known in the United States of America as Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology is the specialty of dentistry and pathology which deals with the nature, identification, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. It is a science that investigates the causes, processes and effects of these diseases.

oral pathology, oral medicine, oral cancer, gum disease, bad breath, gingivitis, periodontal disease, periodontitis, toothpaste, dental floss,

"The mouth is a mirror of health or disease, a sentinel or early warning system. As the gateway to the body, the mouth is challenged by a constant barrage of invaders - bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi. Many systemic diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis and AIDS, as well as therapies for systemic diseases, can affect oral tissues." - U. S. Surgeon General's Report
The practice of oral pathology includes research, diagnosis of diseases using clinical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical or other examinations, and in many instances the management of patients.
It may also include the oral and dental treatment of patients who are medically compromised, that is, those that have serious medical problems, such as:
  • Actinic Cheilosis
    - Acute Apical Abscess - Acute Inflammatory Lesions - Acute Pulpitis - Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor - Ameloblastic Fibroma - Ameloblastoma - Ankyloglossia - Aphthous Stomatitis - Apical Cyst - Benign Keratosis - Benign Mixed Tumor - Benign Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid - Blue, Brown, Black, and Yellow Lesions - Bruxism - Burning Mouth Syndrome - Canker Sores - Carcinoma-in-Situ - Cheilitis - Cherubism - Chondrosarcoma - Chronic Apical Periodontitis - Chronic Pulpitis - Cleft Lip - Cold Sores - Condensing Osteitis - Dental Erosion - Dentigerous Cyst - Dentin Caries - Enamel Caries - Epulis Fissuratum - Fibrous Dysplasia - Fissured Tongue - Focal Melanosis - Fordyce's Granules - Geographic Tongue - Gingivitis - Globulomaxillary Cyst - Glossitis, Benign Migratory - Granular Cell Tumor - Hairy Tongue - Hemangioma - Hematopoietic Bone Marrow Defect - Herpes Labialis - Incisive Canal Cyst - Inflammatory Papillary Hyperplasia - Irritation Fibrosis - Lichen Planus - Lingual Tonsil - Lingual Varicosities - Lipoma - Ludwig's Angina - Lymphangioma - Macroglossia - Major Aphthous Stomatitis - Median Palatal Cyst - Median Rhomboid Glossitis - Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome - Metastatic Jaw Malignancies - Mucocoele and Ranula - Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma - Mucosal Dysplasia - Mucous Membrane Lesions - Mucous Retention Cyst - Nasolabial Cyst - Neurilemmoma - Neurofibroma - Nicotine Stomatitis - Odontogenic Keratocyst - Odontoma - Osseous Dysplasia - Ossifying Fibroma - Osteomyelitis - Osteosarcoma - Paget's Disease of Bone - Pemphigus Vulgaris - Periodontal Diseases - Peripheral Fibroma - Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma - Pierre Robin Syndrome - Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis - Primordial Cyst - Prognathism - Prominent Circumvallate Papillae - Prominent Incisive Fossa - Pulp Hyperemia - Pulp Polyp - Pyogenic Granuloma - Ranula and Mucocoele - Recurrent Herpetic Gingivostomatitis - Red Lesions - Residual Cyst - Salivary Gland Depression - Salivary Gland Diseases - Sialorrhea - Simple Bone Cyst - Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Squamous Papilloma - Stomatitis, Aphthous - Stomatognathic Diseases - Suppurative Apical Periodontitis - Teeth Lesions - Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders - Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Dysfunction Syndrome - Tori, Exostoses, and Enostoses - Traumatic Neuroma - Xerostomia    

What are the most common types of oral pathology?

Tooth decay and gum (periodontal) disease are the most common diseases in the oral cavity, but there are other diseases that can affect the mouth and surrounding structures. Some of these conditions may be painful or result in gingival (gum) bleeding or halitosis (bad breath)
Other conditions, however, may give no symptoms until late in their course, or may be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. It is very important to have regular dental examinations to check on the health of both the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth, as early diagnosis of problems often results in better treatment.

What about oral cancer?

Cancer can occur anywhere in the mouth and is often painless in the early stages. The major risk factor in western countries being tobacco smoking. Cancers of the lower lip occur more commonly in people who have a high exposure to UV sunlight, such as outdoor workers.

By not smoking and always using sun protection on exposed skin and lips, patients can decrease their risk of developing these cancers.

Your dentist will examine and assess any non-healing ulcer or change in the appearance or texture of the skin. In most cases of oral patology, the earlier the treatment, the better the outcome.
Cancer of the mouth is both a preventable and potentially curable disease if it is detected early enough. More details...
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Looking forward to hearing from you

Aleksandr V. Melekhin, DDS

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